Francis turbine is a combination of both reaction and impulse turbine. The blades rotate the usage of both impulse and reaction pressure of water flowing via them producing electricity extra efficiently. Francis turbine is used for the production of strength in hydro strength stations. Majorly, two turbines go with the flow styles, on which they work namely, radial and axial go with the flow principles.

The primary cause of the better performance of Francis turbine lies inside the design of blades. Those blades rotate the use of both reaction and impulse pressure of water flowing through them. Due to the use of this kind of turbine the primary trouble confronted because of the water head availability is removed as the turbine uses each kinetic and potential strength to provide strength. For this, the Francis turbine is also called a blended glide turbine.

Francis Turbine Working Principle

Francis turbine’s blades are designed so that one part of the blade layout creates stress distinction between the blade’s alternative faces. While water flows through it, and the last component’s blade layout uses the impulse force of water hitting it. This blended movement of pressure distinction and impulse force generates enough strength to get the turbine shifting at a required pace. As a result, there might be lower kinetic energy. Also, the capacity of electricity of water at go out is lower than at the entry the turbine.

It is a smart layout that uses both the response and impulse force to generate electricity output. This force is higher than the character impulse turbine or response generators ought to produce at identical water head situations.

Fundamental components of Francis turbine

The predominant components of the Francis turbine are:

Spiral casing

The spiral casing is a vital component of the Francis turbine. The water flowing from the reservoir or dam is made to bypass by this casing with excessive stress. The blades of the turbines are circularly positioned, which means the water putting the blades ought to waft within the round axis for efficient hanging. So, the spiral casing is used, but because of the round movement of the water, it loses its pressure. To maintain the identical strain the diameter of the casing is gradually decreased, to keep the stress uniform, for that reason uniform momentum or speed placing the runner blades.

Stationary Blades

Guide blades and stationary blades guide the water to the runner blades. Stationary blades continue to be desk-bound at their function and decrease the swirling of water due to radial drift, as it enters the runner blades. This process makes the turbine more efficient.

Guide vanes

Guide vanes are not desk-bound; they exchange their attitude according to the requirement to govern the angle of placing of water to turbine blades to grow the efficiency. In addition, they modify the go with the flow fee of water into the runner blades for that reason controlling the electricity output of a turbine in keeping with the weight at the turbine.

Impeller blades

The Francis turbine efficiency and performance are reliant on the impeller blade design. In a Francis turbine, runner blades divide into two portions. The lower half is made in the form of a small bucket so that it uses the impulse motion of water to rotate the turbine. The top part of the blades uses the response force of water flowing through it. These forces together make the runner rotate.

Draft tube

The strain on the exit of the runner of the reaction turbine is normally much less than atmospheric strain. The water at go out cannot be without delay discharged to the tailrace. A tube or pipe of regularly increasing location is used for discharging water from the go out of turbine to the tailrace. This tube of the increasing region is known as the draft tube. One end of the tube is attached to the outlet of the runner. While the other gives up is submerged under the level of water inside the tail-race.

How does a Francis turbine Work?

The water enters the spiral casing of the turbine, which leads the water via the live vanes and guide vanes. The spiral case is kept in decreasing diameter so that you can sustain the flow pressure. The stationary vanes being stationary in their vicinity eliminates the swirls from the water. This might be generated due to glide thru spiral casing and attempts to make the float of water greater linear to be deflected by adjustable guide vanes. The perspective of guide vanes comes to a decision. The angle of assault of water on the runner blades as a consequence makes the certain output of the turbine.

The runner blades are stationary and might not pitch or exchange their attitude. So, it is all about the moving blades which control the electricity output of a turbine. The overall performance and efficiency of the turbine is depending on the layout of the runner blades. In a Francis turbine, runner blades are divided into 2 components. The decreased half is made in the form of a small bucket so that it uses the impulse action of water to rotate the turbine.

The higher a part of the blades uses the reaction pressure of water flowing through it. Hence, runner blades use both strain electricity and kinetic energy of water. It rotates the runner most efficiently. The water coming out of runner blades would lack kinetic energy and stress power. So, we use the draft tube to get better the strain as it advances towards the tailrace. But, we still can’t recover the strain to such volume. Hence, we can not prevent air from moving into the runner housing, causing cavitation.

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